What would you call a spider thread in Portuguese?
I know that spider web is teia de aranha.
Could it be fio de aranha?
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I'm not an entomologist and this how I would phrase it, in general, as a layman:
I'd call both of them "teia de aranha" (or simply "teia"), with a small difference between them. A spider web, in the singular, is more likely to be preceded by a determiner and I therefore would say "(uma/aquela/essa/esta) teia de aranha". Then again, for "spider thread/silk" I wouldn't use the preceding determiner at all and would say "teia de aranha".
A detailist, however, would make it a point to say "um fio de teia de aranha".