I'll try to clarify two of those:
Matamos o tempo; o tempo nos enterra.
Matamos o tempo can be translated literally as "to kill time", ie, do nothing usefull while you're getting older and older.
O tempo nos enterra- Literally, Time (capital letter) buries us, we die a little bit each day.
Não te irrites se te pagarem mal um benefício: antes cair das nuvens, que de um terceiro andar.
Não te irrites se te pagarem mal um benefício - Don't get upset if you are poorly paid (I'm not sure how to interpret this given this short context).
Antes cair das nuvens, que de um terceiro andar - This is very abstract and gives margin to other interpretations. But I'll assume it means the following: It's better to "fall from the clouds" and die instantly (thus having a great thrill/adventure in the process), than just to survive a terrible accident which may turn you into a vegetal. Well, just think about some 70's rock starts who died before their 30's.
Hope it helps.