Limpar means to clean, not specifically to wipe down.
The main meaning of esfregar is to rub, though, indeed, it can also mean to mop, to scrub or to wipe (a surface). A mop is called esfregona, from esfregar + the suffix ona, and you could translate mop the floor as esfregar o chão.
However, as applied to furniture, it doesn't sound very idiomatic, maybe because it seems too agressive an action for something relatively fragile such as furniture (as compared to the floor, or a big pot). You would more likely say limpar o móvel or limpar o pó ao móvel, if you're specifically removing dust.