Once I tried to explain what a phrasal verb is by utilizing a similar example in Portuguese. Unfortunately, I couldn't think of any example, which makes me think: are there phrasal verbs in Portuguese?
After some research, I've found an example at Wikipedia:
O fenômeno dos "phrasal verbs" também ocorre na língua portuguesa. Contudo, não é muito comum. É mais encontrado no português coloquial falado no Brasil e não deve ser utilizado em contextos formais.
"Não quero mais saber de você! Cai fora!" (cair fora = sair, retirar-se);
"Depois de ter sido xingada, ela partiu para cima dele com uma faca." (partir para cima = atacar algo ou alguém).
"Cai fora" is analogous to "Get out", and both seems to be great examples of phrasal verbs.
This is really interesting! All Portuguese examples given by the answers here are slangs or informal/casual, being mostly used in spoken language. And it also seems that the use of English phrasal verbs has a slight difference in formality when compared to its one-word counterparts, which indeed makes much sense.
English phrasal verbs are combinations of verbs and prepositions where the meaning of the expressions as a whole cannot be completely understood just from the meaning of the individual parts. Syntactically, there are only minor differences between phrasal verbs and actual combinations of verbs and prepositions, it's more of a semantic concept, with a lot of gray area between the two fields (see for instance Dixon, The grammar of English phrasal verbs, 1982 [subscription required]).
So if the question is whether there are verbs that, combined with a preposition, take a different meaning, the answer is yes. Just look at special entries in dictionaries under a verb. For instance, with estar (Aulete):
Estar para 1 Estar prestes a, na iminência de: Ela está para ter neném por estes dias.
However, the preposition cannot stand alone, it always introduces a prepositional phrase. This would be analogous to prepositional phrasal verbs, as Wikipedia puts it (citing The Collins Cobuild English Grammar). But nothing like the particle phrasal verbs or particle-prepositional phrasal verbs, at least admitting that the particle (which then has an adverbial role) has to function also as a preposition. If we relax this requirement, then we can think of expressions such as dar-se bem (com qualquer coisa). If you deem do well (for oneself) a phrasal verb, this would probably also qualify as such.
There are also prefixes that can be added to verbs that can also work as prepositions, like sob (sobpor). However, 1) this would not analogous to phrasal verbs, more like to verbs such as understand (under + stand), 2) at least with sobpor the meaning can be deduced from the parts and 3) the are very few prefixes that also have a preposition counterpart, unlike say Dutch, where most (simple) prepositions can also function as a prefix for a separable verb (except a few like via and tijdens and some others that take a different form like met / mee).
Phrasal verbs in English are one verb plus one preposition (sometimes an adverb) that together form a single unit of meaning:
- go out
- come back
- sit up
- find out
In Portuguese some verbs are followed by a preposition but the combination of the preposition and the verb on their own have no meaning.
Ele foi de pirata. IR DE is not a single meaning. There has to be something after it: de pirata. What has meaning is: ir + de + pirata.
If there were phrasal verbs in Portuguese, you could say (and of course you can't) estar para ter neném as: Ela está para essa semana? estar para + VERB + noun. And estar + para without anything else is gibberish in Portuguese.
Phrasal verbs form single units of meaning: get there = to arrive get up=rise or arise find out=discover
Of course there are phrasal verbs in Portuguese.
Some examples (not slang nor informal):
fazer de: means to pretend to be (someone or something) - playing a role deixar de: means to stop (doing something) passar por: means to pretend to be (someone) correr com: means to expel (someone) dar com: means to find (não) dar por: means (not) to notice
and so on...
PS - A phrasal verb combines a verb with a preposition (or adverb or both) whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words. "Fazer" means to do; "deixar" means to let; "passar" means to pass; "correr" means to run and "dar" means to give. Clearly, their meaning changes when the preposition is added.
Although I can't give you any references, I dare say there aren't any phrasal verbs in Portuguese. That has been widely cited as one of the several differences between English and Portuguese. We do have, however, slang phrases that might sound like a phrasal verb: e.g. "entrar bem", where "entrar" means "enter", "go in", and "bem" means "well". Together, they mean "entrou pelo cano", "não se deu bem"
"Ele tentou enganar o professor mas no final entrou bem".
TL:DR; yeah, I don't believe anymore there are phrasal verbs in Portuguese thanks to the fair point made by our fellow enthusiast in the comments below. As a layman, like I stated in comments, I guess some expressions we use gets pretty close to the idea of phrasal verbs in my opinion, but in the end they're still just expressions..
I was about to say no to your question. Then I thought about transitive and intransitive verbs, which is a very important concept taught throughout our language courses here in Brazil. So I guess, if you consider it that way, yeah, we have phrasal verbs. Some verbs change entirely their meaning by preposition usage (ir ao encontro = to meet up with, ir de encontro = to disagree, from the top of my head is what I can quote, but there are lists, very long lists, riddle with examples, that I had to memorize for some reason during grade school).
I disagree with some of the examples used in some of the replies though. All the examples cited above seem to me more like idioms not quite slangs and definitely not what I understand as phrasal verb (but then again, my English classes are way behind me, and I haven't had to review grammar that specific recently), if my English knowledge doesn't fail me. Mainly because many of these expressions aren't actually informal, nor restricted to a region, age, social group etc.
I believe these are the most similar to phrasal verbs in Portuguese;
- Dar em cima de; to flert sb.
- Pular fora; escape from a bad or weird situation
- Sair pra lá; excuse me
- Sair fora; Go away
- Cai dentro; to face, to confront sb.
- Cair fora; to leave a place
- Levar fora; to be rejected by someone
- Ficar de (bem/mal); to reconcile/ to be at odds to so.
- Dar bem/mal; to suffer the consequences or to do badly or to be in trouble or even to get your fingers burnt
- Ficar fora; to be without with something eg.: ficar fora de si/to get out of control or to get crazy
- Ficar fora de forma; to be out of shape.
These are some examples of the similar in Portuguese, not classified grammatically as phrasal verbs are in English, though.