(...) en dashes are used with spaces and em dashes are used without them:
- [Em dash:] A flock of sparrows—some of them juveniles—alighted and sang.
- [En dash:] A flock of sparrows – some of them juveniles – alighted and sang.
The en dash (but not the em dash) is also used to indicate spans or differentiation, where it may be considered to replace "and" or "to" (but not "to" in the phrase "from … to …"):
- The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was fought in western Pennsylvania and along the present US–Canadian border (Edwards, pp. 81–101).
The em dash (but not the en dash) is also used to set off the sources of quotes:
- "Seven social sins: politics without principles, wealth without work, pleasure without conscience, knowledge without character, commerce without morality, science without humanity, and worship without sacrifice." —Mahatma Gandhi
Are these dashes different in Portuguese? I.e. do they have different meanings and contexts? If so, do they also have the same spacing rule?