Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

First bounty you manually award on another person's question
4 awarded
First bounty you manually award on your own question
11 awarded
Ask a well-received question on 5 separate days, and maintain a positive question record
65 awarded
First bounty you offer on another person's question
7 awarded
Question score of 10 or more
300 awarded
Question with 1,000 views
753 awarded
First bounty you offer on your own question
15 awarded
Ask a question and accept an answer
302 awarded
First question with score of 1 or more
432 awarded

Answer Badges

Edit and answer 1 question (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
19 awarded
Answer score of 10 or more
270 awarded
Answer more than 30 days after a question was asked as first answer scoring 2 or more
64 awarded
Answer your own question with score of 3 or more
21 awarded
Answer a question with score of 1 or more
485 awarded

Participation Badges

Complete "About Me" section of user profile
1.7k awarded
Visit an election during any phase of an active election and have enough reputation to cast a vote
Leave 10 comments
113 awarded
Earn at least 200 reputation (the daily maximum) in a single day
23 awarded
Followed the Area 51 proposal for this site before it entered the commitment phase
85 awarded
One post with score of 2 on meta
72 awarded
Post 10 messages, with 1 or more starred, in chat
17 awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 100 in at least 20 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
20 awarded
System.Threading.Tasks.Task`1[System.String]

Moderation Badges

First flagged post
101 awarded
First rollback
20 awarded
First down vote
129 awarded
Complete at least one review task. This badge is awarded once per review type
227 awarded
Delete own post with score of 3 or higher
9 awarded
First edit
343 awarded
Edit first post that was inactive for 6 months
22 awarded
First retag
45 awarded
Delete own post with score of -3 or lower
9 awarded
Approve or reject 100 suggested edits
2 awarded
Use 30 votes in a day
37 awarded
First up vote
722 awarded
First approved tag synonym
7 awarded
First tag wiki edit
21 awarded
Use the maximum 40 votes in a day
31 awarded

Other Badges

Share a link to a post later visited by 25 unique IP addresses
10 awarded
Read the entire tour page
495 awarded

Retired Badges

Visited every section of the FAQ
Asked a question with zero score, no answers, no comments, and low views for a week
1 awarded